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INTERNET SAFETY TIPS for parents and children









Glossary of Distance Learning Acronyms and definitions


2013 Cybercrime and the Underground Market

2016 Kevin Mitnick ~ A standard iPhone is secure because your choices and behaviors are more important than the equipment. [Tips] For example, he uses an alphanumeric long passcode (rather than the 4 digit password most of us use). And if thinks he might be ordered to unlock his phone (such as when he returns to the United States from traveling abroad), he reboots the phone so touch ID stops working (only the passcode can unlock a phone immediately after a reboot). He pointed out that in the United States, "a court can force you to unlock your phone with your thumb, but they can't force you to reveal your code." Phone Freak - Dumpster Diving


The first document ever against software piracy, wrote by the man who monopolized the software market a few years after...

February 3, 1976

An Open Letter to Hobbyists

To me, the most critical thing in the hobby market right now is the lack of good software courses, books and software itself. Without good software and an owner who understands programming, a hobby computer is wasted. Will quality software be written for the hobby market?
Almost a year ago, Paul Allen and myself, expecting the hobby market to expand, hired Monte Davidoff and developed Altair BASIC. Though the initial work took only two months, the three of us have spent most of the last year documenting, improving and adding fea- tures to BASIC. Now we have 4K, 8K, EXTENDED, ROM and DISK BASIC. The values of the computer time we have used exceeds $40,000.
The feedback we have gotten from the hundreds of people who say they are using BASIC has all been positive. Two surprising things are apparent, however. 1) Most of these "users" never bought BASIC (less than 10% of all Altair owners have bought BASIC), and 2) the amount of royalties we have received from sales to hobbyists make the time spent of Altair BASIC worth less than $2 an hour.
Why is this? As the majority of hobbyists must be aware, most of you steal your software. Hardware must be paid for, but soft- ware is something to share. Who cares if the people who worked on it get paid?
Is this fair? One thing you don't do by stealing software is get back at MITS for some problem you may have had. MITS doesn't make money selling software. The royalty paid to us, the manual, the tape and the overhead make it a break-even operation. One thing you do do is prevent good software from being written. Who can af- ford to do professional work for nothing? What hobbyist can put 3-man years into programming, finding all bugs, documenting his pro- duct and distribute for free? The fact is, no one besides us has invested a lot of money in hobby software. We have written 6800 BASIC, and are writing 8080 APL and 6800 APL, but there is very lit- tle incentive to make this software available to hobbyists. Most directly, the thing you do is theft.
What about the guys who re-sell Altair BASIC, aren't they mak- ing money on hobby software? Yes, but those who have been reported to us may lose in the end. They are the ones who give hobbyists a bad name, and should be kicked out of any club meeting they show up at.
I would appreciate letters from any one who wants to pay up, or has a suggestion or comment. Just write me at 1180 Alvarado SE, #114, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87108. Nothing would please me more than being able to hire ten programmers and deluge the hobby market with good software.

Bill Gates
General Partner, Micro-Soft


The Conscience of a Hacker
by Mentor Written on January 8, 1986

==Phrack Inc.==
Volume One, Issue 7, Phile 3 of 10
The following was written shortly after my arrest...

Another one got caught today, it's all over the papers. "Teenager Arrested in Computer Crime Scandal", "Hacker Arrested after Bank Tampering"...

Damn kids. They're all alike.

But did you, in your three-piece psychology and 1950's
technobrain, ever take a look behind the eyes of the hacker? Did you ever wonder what made him tick, what forces shaped him,what may have molded him?

I am a hacker, enter my world...

Mine is a world that begins with school. I'm smarter than most of the other kids, this crap they teach us bores me...

Damn underachiever. They're all alike.

I'm in junior high or high school. I've listened to teachers
explain for the fifteenth time how to reduce a fraction. I
understand it. "No, Ms. Smith, I didn't show my work. I did it in my head."

Damn kid. Probably copied it. They're all alike.

I made a discovery today. I found a computer.

Wait a second, this is cool. It does what I want it to.
If it makes a mistake, it's because I screwed it up.

Not because it doesn't like me...
Or feels threatened by me...
Or thinks I'm a smart ass...
Or doesn't like teaching and shouldn't be here...

Damn kid. All he does is play games. They're all alike.

And then it happened. A door opened to a world rushing through my phone line like heroin through an addict's veins, an electronic pulse is sent out, a refuge from the day-to-day incompetencies is sought... a board is found.

"This is it... this is where I belong."
I know everyone here... even if I've never met them, never talked to them, may never hear from them again... I know you all.

Damn kid. Tying up the phone line again. They're all alike.

You bet your ass we're all alike... we've been spoon-fed baby food at school when we hungered for steak... the bits of meat that you did let slip through were pre-chewed and tasteless. We've been dominated by sadists, or ignored by the apathetic. The few that had something to teach found us willing pupils, but those few are like drops of water in the desert.

This is our world now... the world of the electron and the switch, the beauty of the baud. We make use of a service already existing without paying for what could be dirt-cheap if it wasn't run by profiteering gluttons, and you call us criminals. We explore... and you call us criminals. We seek after knowledge... and you call us criminals.

We exist without skin color, without nationality, without
religious bias... and you call us criminals. You build atomic bombs, you wage wars, you murder, cheat, and lie to us and try to make us believe it's for our own good, yet we're the criminals.

Yes, I am a criminal. My crime is that of curiosity. My crime is that of judging people by what they say and think, not what they look like. My crime is that of outsmarting you, something that you will never forgive me for.

I am a hacker, and this is my manifesto. You may stop this individual, but you can't stop us all...

After all, we're all alike.

Hacker Culture A brief History

The LOD/H Presents |
A Novice's Guide to Hacking- 1989 edition
by The Mentor
Legion of Doom/Legion of Hackers
December, 1988
Merry Christmas Everyone!

The author hereby grants permission to reproduce, redistribute, or include this file in your g-file section, electronic or print newletter, or any other form of transmission that you choose, as long as it is kept intact and whole, with no ommissions, deletions, or changes.
(C) The Mentor- Phoenix Project Productions 1988,1989 512/441-3088

Introduction: The State of the Hack
After surveying a rather large g-file collection, my attention was drawn to the fact that there hasn't been a good introductory file written for absolute beginners since back when Mark Tabas was cranking them out (and almost *everyone* was a beginner!) The Arts of Hacking and Phreaking have changed radically since that time, and as the 90's approach, the hack/phreak community has recovered from the Summer '87 busts (just like it recovered from the Fall '85 busts, and like it will always recover from attempts to shut it down), and the progressive media (from Reality Hackers magazine to William Gibson and Bruce Sterling's cyberpunk fables of hackerdom) is starting to take notice of us for the first time in recent years in a positive light.
Unfortunately, it has also gotten more dangerous since the early 80's. Phone cops have more resources, more awareness, and more intelligence that they exhibited in the past. It is becoming more and more difficult to survive as a hacker long enough to become skilled in the art. To this end this file is dedicated. If it can help someone get started, and help them survive to discover new systems and new information, it will have served it's purpose, and served as a partial repayment to all the people who helped me out when I was a beginner.

This file will be divided into four parts:
Part 1: What is Hacking, A Hacker's Code of Ethics, Basic Hacking Safety
Part 2: Packet Switching Networks: Telenet- How it Works, How to Use it, Outdials, Network Servers, Private PADs
Part 3: Identifying a Computer, How to Hack In, Operating System Defaults
Part 4: Conclusion- Final Thoughts, Books to Read, Boards to Call, Acknowledgements

Part One: The Basics
As long as there have been computers, there have been hackers. In the 50's at the Massachusets Institute of Technology (MIT), students devoted much time and energy to ingenious exploration of the computers. Rules and the law were disregarded in their pursuit for the 'hack'. Just as they were enthralled with their pursuit of information, so are we. The thrill of the hack is not in breaking the law, it's in the pursuit and capture of knowledge.
To this end, let me contribute my suggestions for guidelines to follow to ensure that not only you stay out of trouble, but you pursue your craft without damaging the computers you hack into or the companies who own them.

I. Do not intentionally damage *any* system.
II. Do not alter any system files other than ones needed to ensure your escape from detection and your future access (Trojan Horses, Altering Logs, and the like are all necessary to your survival for as long as possible.)
III. Do not leave your (or anyone else's) real name, real handle, or real phone number on any system that you access illegally. They *can* and will track you down from your handle!
IV. Be careful who you share information with. Feds are getting trickier. Generally, if you don't know their voice phone number, name, and occupation or haven't spoken with them voice on non-info trading conversations, be wary.
V. Do not leave your real phone number to anyone you don't know. This includes logging on boards, no matter how k-rad they seem. If you don't know the sysop, leave a note telling some trustworthy people that will validate you.
VI. Do not hack government computers. Yes, there are government systems that are safe to hack, but they are few and far between. And the government has inifitely more time and resources to track you down than a company who has to make a profit and justify expenses.
VII. Don't use codes unless there is *NO* way around it (you don't have a local telenet or tymnet outdial and can't connect to anything 800...) You use codes long enough, you will get caught. Period.
VIII. Don't be afraid to be paranoid. Remember, you *are* breaking the law. It doesn't hurt to store everything encrypted on your hard disk, or keep your notes buried in the backyard or in the trunk of your car. You may feel a little funny, but you'll feel a lot funnier when you when you meet Bruno, your transvestite cellmate who axed his family to death.
IX. Watch what you post on boards. Most of the really great hackers in the country post *nothing* about the system they're currently working except in the broadest sense (I'm working on a UNIX, or a COSMOS, or something generic. Not "I'm hacking into General Electric's Voice Mail System" or something inane and revealing like that.)
X. Don't be afraid to ask questions. That's what more experienced hackers are for. Don't expect *everything* you ask to be answered, though. There are some things (LMOS, for instance) that a begining hacker shouldn't mess with. You'll either get caught, or screw it up for others, or both.
XI. Finally, you have to actually hack. You can hang out on boards all you want, and you can read all the text files in the world, but until you actually start doing it, you'll never know what it's all about. There's no thrill quite the same as getting into your first system (well, ok, I can think of a couple of bigger thrills, but you get the picture.)

One of the safest places to start your hacking career is on a computer system belonging to a college. University computers have notoriously lax security, and are more used to hackers, as every college computer depart- ment has one or two, so are less likely to press charges if you should be detected. But the odds of them detecting you and having the personel to committ to tracking you down are slim as long as you aren't destructive.

If you are already a college student, this is ideal, as you can legally explore your computer system to your heart's desire, then go out and look for similar systems that you can penetrate with confidence, as you're already familar with them.

So if you just want to get your feet wet, call your local college. Many of them will provide accounts for local residents at a nominal (under $20) charge.

Finally, if you get caught, stay quiet until you get a lawyer. Don't vol- unteer any information, no matter what kind of 'deals' they offer you. Nothing is binding unless you make the deal through your lawyer, so you might as well shut up and wait.

Part Two: Networks
The best place to begin hacking (other than a college) is on one of the bigger networks such as Telenet. Why? First, there is a wide variety of computers to choose from, from small Micro-Vaxen to huge Crays. Second, the networks are fairly well documented. It's easier to find someone who can help you with a problem off of Telenet than it is to find assistance concerning your local college computer or high school machine. Third, the networks are safer. Because of the enormous number of calls that are fielded every day by the big networks, it is not financially practical to keep track of where every call and connection are made from. It is also very easy to disguise your location using the network, which makes your hobby much more secure.

Telenet has more computers hooked to it than any other system in the world once you consider that from Telenet you have access to Tymnet, ItaPAC, JANET, DATAPAC, SBDN, PandaNet, THEnet, and a whole host of other networks, all of which you can connect to from your terminal.

The first step that you need to take is to identify your local dialup port. This is done by dialing 1-800-424-9494 (1200 7E1) and connecting. It will spout some garbage at you and then you'll get a prompt saying 'TERMINAL='. This is your terminal type. If you have vt100 emulation, type it in now. Or just hit return and it will default to dumb terminal mode.

You'll now get a prompt that looks like a @. From here, type @c mail and then it will ask for a Username. Enter 'phones' for the username. When it asks for a password, enter 'phones' again. From this point, it is menu driven. Use this to locate your local dialup, and call it back locally. If you don't have a local dialup, then use whatever means you wish to connect to one long distance (more on this later.)

When you call your local dialup, you will once again go through the TERMINAL= stuff, and once again you'll be presented with a @. This prompt lets you know you are connected to a Telenet PAD. PAD stands for either Packet Assembler/Disassembler (if you talk to an engineer), or Public Access Device (if you talk to Telenet's marketing people.) The first description is more correct.

Telenet works by taking the data you enter in on the PAD you dialed into, bundling it into a 128 byte chunk (normally... this can be changed), and then transmitting it at speeds ranging from 9600 to 19,200 baud to another PAD, who then takes the data and hands it down to whatever computer or system it's connected to. Basically, the PAD allows two computers that have different baud rates or communication protocols to communicate with each other over a long distance. Sometimes you'll notice a time lag in the remote machines response. This is called PAD Delay, and is to be expected when you're sending data through several different links.

What do you do with this PAD? You use it to connect to remote computer systems by typing 'C' for connect and then the Network User Address (NUA) of the system you want to go to.

An NUA takes the form of 031103130002520
| | |
| | |____ network address
| |_________ area prefix
|______________ DNIC

This is a summary of DNIC's (taken from Blade Runner's file on ItaPAC)
according to their country and network name.

DNIC Network Name Country DNIC Network Name Country
02041 Datanet 1 Netherlands | 03110 Telenet USA
02062 DCS Belgium | 03340 Telepac Mexico
02080 Transpac France | 03400 UDTS-Curacau Curacau
02284 Telepac Switzerland | 04251 Isranet Israel
02322 Datex-P Austria | 04401 DDX-P Japan
02329 Radaus Austria | 04408 Venus-P Japan
02342 PSS UK | 04501 Dacom-Net South Korea
02382 Datapak Denmark | 04542 Intelpak Singapore
02402 Datapak Sweden | 05052 Austpac Australia
02405 Telepak Sweden | 05053 Midas Australia
02442 Finpak Finland | 05252 Telepac Hong Kong
02624 Datex-P West Germany | 05301 Pacnet New Zealand
02704 Luxpac Luxembourg | 06550 Saponet South Africa
02724 Eirpak Ireland | 07240 Interdata Brazil
03020 Datapac Canada | 07241 Renpac Brazil
03028 Infogram Canada | 09000 Dialnet USA
03103 ITT/UDTS USA | 07421 Dompac French Guiana
03106 Tymnet USA |

There are two ways to find interesting addresses to connect to. The first and easiest way is to obtain a copy of the LOD/H Telenet Directory from the LOD/H Technical Journal #4 or 2600 Magazine. Jester Sluggo also put out a good list of non-US addresses in Phrack Inc. Newsletter Issue 21. These files will tell you the NUA, whether it will accept collect calls or not, what type of computer system it is (if known) and who it belongs to (also if known.)

The second method of locating interesting addresses is to scan for them manually. On Telenet, you do not have to enter the 03110 DNIC to connect to a Telenet host. So if you saw that 031104120006140 had a VAX on it you wanted to look at, you could type @c 412 614 (0's can be ignored most of the time.)

If this node allows collect billed connections, it will say 412 614 CONNECTED and then you'll possibly get an identifying header or just a Username: prompt. If it doesn't allow collect connections, it will give you a message such as 412 614 REFUSED COLLECT CONNECTION with some error codes out to the right, and return you to the @ prompt.

There are two primary ways to get around the REFUSED COLLECT message. The first is to use a Network User Id (NUI) to connect. An NUI is a username/pw combination that acts like a charge account on Telenet. To collect to node 412 614 with NUI junk4248, password 525332, I'd type the following: @c 412 614,junk4248,525332 <---- the 525332 will *not* be echoed to the screen. The problem with NUI's is that they're hard to come by unless you're a good social engineer with a thorough knowledge of Telenet (in which case you probably aren't reading this section), or you have someone who can provide you with them.

The second way to connect is to use a private PAD, either through an X.25 PAD or through something like Netlink off of a Prime computer (more on these two below.)

The prefix in a Telenet NUA oftentimes (not always) refers to the phone Area Code that the computer is located in (i.e. 713 xxx would be a computer in Houston, Texas.) If there's a particular area you're interested in, (say, New York City 914), you could begin by typing @c 914 001 . If it connects, you make a note of it and go on to 914 002. You do this until you've found some interesting systems to play with.

Not all systems are on a simple xxx yyy address. Some go out to four or five digits (914 2354), and some have decimal or numeric extensions (422 121A = 422 121.01). You have to play with them, and you never know what you're going to find. To fully scan out a prefix would take ten million attempts per prefix. For example, if I want to scan 512 completely, I'd have to start with 512 00000.00 and go through 512 00000.99, then increment the address by 1 and try 512 00001.00 through 512 00001.99. A lot of scanning. There are plenty of neat computers to play with in a 3-digit scan, however, so don't go berserk with the extensions.

Sometimes you'll attempt to connect and it will just be sitting there after one or two minutes. In this case, you want to abort the connect attempt by sending a hard break (this varies with different term programs, on Procomm, it's ALT-B), and then when you get the @ prompt back, type 'D' for disconnect.

If you connect to a computer and wish to disconnect, you can type @ and you it should say TELENET and then give you the @ prompt. From there, type D to disconnect or CONT to re-connect and continue your session uninterrupted.

Outdials, Network Servers, and PADs
In addition to computers, an NUA may connect you to several other things. One of the most useful is the outdial. An outdial is nothing more than a modem you can get to over telenet- similar to the PC Pursuit concept, except that these don't have passwords on them most of the time.

When you connect, you will get a message like 'Hayes 1200 baud outdial, Detroit, MI', or 'VEN-TEL 212 Modem', or possibly 'Session 1234 established on Modem 5588'. The best way to figure out the commands on these is to type ? or H or HELP- this will get you all the information that you need to use one.

Safety tip here- when you are hacking *any* system through a phone dialup, always use an outdial or a diverter, especially if it is a local phone number to you. More people get popped hacking on local computers than you can imagine, Intra-LATA calls are the easiest things in the world to trace inexp- ensively.

Another nice trick you can do with an outdial is use the redial or macro function that many of them have. First thing you do when you connect is to invoke the 'Redial Last Number' facility. This will dial the last number used, which will be the one the person using it before you typed. Write down the number, as no one would be calling a number without a computer on it. This is a good way to find new systems to hack. Also, on a VENTEL modem, type 'D' for Display and it will display the five numbers stored as macros in the modem's memory.

There are also different types of servers for remote Local Area Networks (LAN) that have many machine all over the office or the nation connected to them. I'll discuss identifying these later in the computer ID section.

And finally, you may connect to something that says 'X.25 Communication PAD' and then some more stuff, followed by a new @ prompt. This is a PAD just like the one you are on, except that all attempted connections are billed to the PAD, allowing you to connect to those nodes who earlier refused collect connections.

This also has the added bonus of confusing where you are connecting from. When a packet is transmitted from PAD to PAD, it contains a header that has the location you're calling from. For instance, when you first connected to Telenet, it might have said 212 44A CONNECTED if you called from the 212 area code. This means you were calling PAD number 44A in the 212 area. That 21244A will be sent out in the header of all packets leaving the PAD. Once you connect to a private PAD, however, all the packets going out from *it* will have it's address on them, not yours. This can be a valuable buffer between yourself and detection.

Phone Scanning
Finally, there's the time-honored method of computer hunting that was made famous among the non-hacker crowd by that Oh-So-Technically-Accurate movie Wargames. You pick a three digit phone prefix in your area and dial every number from 0000 --> 9999 in that prefix, making a note of all the carriers you find. There is software available to do this for nearly every computer in the world, so you don't have to do it by hand.

Part Three: I've Found a Computer, Now What?
This next section is applicable universally. It doesn't matter how you found this computer, it could be through a network, or it could be from carrier scanning your High School's phone prefix, you've got this prompt this prompt, what the hell is it?

I'm *NOT* going to attempt to tell you what to do once you're inside of any of these operating systems. Each one is worth several G-files in its own right. I'm going to tell you how to identify and recognize certain OpSystems, how to approach hacking into them, and how to deal with something that you've never seen before and have know idea what it is.

VMS- The VAX computer is made by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), and runs the VMS (Virtual Memory System) operating system. VMS is characterized by the 'Username:' prompt. It will not tell you if you've entered a valid username or not, and will disconnect you after three bad login attempts. It also keeps track of all failed login attempts and informs the owner of the account next time s/he logs in how many bad login attempts were made on the account. It is one of the most secure operating systems around from the outside, but once you're in there are many things that you can do to circumvent system security. The VAX also has the best set of help files in the world. Just type HELP and read to your heart's content.
Common Accounts/Defaults: [username: password [[,password]] ]
GUEST: GUEST or unpassworded
DEMO: DEMO or unpassworded

DEC-10- An earlier line of DEC computer equipment, running the TOPS-10 operating system. These machines are recognized by their '.' prompt. The DEC-10/20 series are remarkably hacker-friendly, allowing you to enter several important commands without ever logging into the system. Accounts are in the format [xxx,yyy] where xxx and yyy are integers. You can get a listing of the accounts and the process names of everyone on the system before logging in with the command .systat (for SYstem STATus). If you seen an account that reads [234,1001] BOB JONES, it might be wise to try BOB or JONES or both for a password on this account. To login, you type .login xxx,yyy and then type the password when prompted for it. The system will allow you unlimited tries at an account, and does not keep records of bad login attempts. It will also inform you if the UIC you're trying (UIC = User Identification Code, 1,2 for example) is bad.
Common Accounts/Defaults:
5,30: GAMES

UNIX- There are dozens of different machines out there that run UNIX. While some might argue it isn't the best operating system in the world, it is certainly the most widely used. A UNIX system will usually have a prompt like 'login:' in lower case. UNIX also will give you unlimited shots at logging in (in most cases), and there is usually no log kept of bad attempts. Common Accounts/Defaults: (note that some systems are case sensitive, so use lower case as a general rule. Also, many times the accounts will be unpassworded, you'll just drop right in!) root: root
admin: admin
sysadmin: sysadmin or admin
unix: unix
uucp: uucp
rje: rje
guest: guest
demo: demo
daemon: daemon
sysbin: sysbin

Prime- Prime computer company's mainframe running the Primos operating system. The are easy to spot, as the greet you with 'Primecon 18.23.05' or the like, depending on the version of the operating system you run into. There will usually be no prompt offered, it will just look like it's sitting there. At this point, type 'login '. If it is a pre-18.00.00 version of Primos, you can hit a bunch of ^C's for the password and you'll drop in. Unfortunately, most people are running versions 19+. Primos also comes with a good set of help files. One of the most useful features of a Prime on Telenet is a facility called NETLINK. Once you're inside, type NETLINK and follow the help files. This allows you to connect to NUA's all over the world using the 'nc' command. For example, to connect to NUA 026245890040004, you would type @nc :26245890040004 at the netlink prompt.
Common Accounts/Defaults:

HP-x000- This system is made by Hewlett-Packard. It is characterized by the ':' prompt. The HP has one of the more complicated login sequences around- you type 'HELLO SESSION NAME,USERNAME,ACCOUNTNAME,GROUP'. Fortunately, some of these fields can be left blank in many cases. Since any and all of these fields can be passworded, this is not the easiest system to get into, except for the fact that there are usually some unpassworded accounts around. In general, if the defaults don't work, you'll have to brute force it using the common password list (see below.) The HP-x000 runs the MPE operat- ing system, the prompt for it will be a ':', just like the logon prompt.
Common Accounts/Defaults:
MGR.HPOFFICE,PUB unpassworded
MANAGER.ITF3000,PUB unpassworded
FIELD.SUPPORT,PUB user: FLD, others unpassworded
MAIL.TELESUP,PUB user: MAIL, others unpassworded
MGR.RJE unpassworded
FIELD.HPPl89 ,HPPl87,HPPl89,HPPl96 unpassworded

IRIS- IRIS stands for Interactive Real Time Information System. It orig- inally ran on PDP-11's, but now runs on many other minis. You can spot an IRIS by the 'Welcome to "IRIS" R9.1.4 Timesharing' banner, and the ACCOUNT ID? prompt. IRIS allows unlimited tries at hacking in, and keeps no logs of bad attempts. I don't know any default passwords, so just try the common ones from the password database below.
Common Accounts:

VM/CMS- The VM/CMS operating system runs in International Business Machines (IBM) mainframes. When you connect to one of these, you will get message similar to 'VM/370 ONLINE', and then give you a '.' prompt, just like TOPS-10 does. To login, you type 'LOGON '.
Common Accounts/Defaults are:

NOS- NOS stands for Networking Operating System, and runs on the Cyber computer made by Control Data Corporation. NOS identifies itself quite readily, with a banner of 'WELCOME TO THE NOS SOFTWARE SYSTEM. COPYRIGHT CONTROL DATA 1978,1987'. The first prompt you will get will be FAMILY:. Just hit return here. Then you'll get a USER NAME: prompt. Usernames are typically 7 alpha-numerics characters long, and are *extremely* site dependent. Operator accounts begin with a digit, such as 7ETPDOC.
Common Accounts/Defaults:
$SYSTEM unknown
SYSTEMV unknown

Decserver- This is not truly a computer system, but is a network server that has many different machines available from it. A Decserver will say 'Enter Username>' when you first connect. This can be anything, it doesn't matter, it's just an identifier. Type 'c', as this is the least conspicuous thing to enter. It will then present you with a 'Local>' prompt. From here, you type 'c ' to connect to a system. To get a list of system names, type 'sh services' or 'sh nodes'. If you have any problems, online help is available with the 'help' command. Be sure and look for services named 'MODEM' or 'DIAL' or something similar, these are often outdial modems and can be useful!

GS/1- Another type of network server. Unlike a Decserver, you can't predict what prompt a GS/1 gateway is going to give you. The default prompt it 'GS/1>', but this is redifinable by the system administrator. To test for a GS/1, do a 'sh d'. If that prints out a large list of defaults (terminal speed, prompt, parity, etc...), you are on a GS/1. You connect in the same manner as a Decserver, typing 'c '. To find out what systems are available, do a 'sh n' or a 'sh c'. Another trick is to do a 'sh m', which will sometimes show you a list of macros for logging onto a system. If there is a macro named VAX, for instance, type 'do VAX'.

The above are the main system types in use today. There are hundreds of minor variants on the above, but this should be enough to get you started.

Unresponsive Systems
Occasionally you will connect to a system that will do nothing but sit there. This is a frustrating feeling, but a methodical approach to the system will yield a response if you take your time. The following list will usually make *something* happen.

1) Change your parity, data length, and stop bits. A system that won't re- spond at 8N1 may react at 7E1 or 8E2 or 7S2. If you don't have a term program that will let you set parity to EVEN, ODD, SPACE, MARK, and NONE, with data length of 7 or 8, and 1 or 2 stop bits, go out and buy one. While having a good term program isn't absolutely necessary, it sure is helpful.
2) Change baud rates. Again, if your term program will let you choose odd baud rates such as 600 or 1100, you will occasionally be able to penetrate some very interesting systems, as most systems that depend on a strange baud rate seem to think that this is all the security they need... 3) Send a series of 's.
4) Send a hard break followed by a .
5) Type a series of .'s (periods). The Canadian network Datapac responds
to this.
6) If you're getting garbage, hit an 'i'. Tymnet responds to this, as does
a MultiLink II.
7) Begin sending control characters, starting with ^A --> ^Z.
8) Change terminal emulations. What your vt100 emulation thinks is garbage
may all of a sudden become crystal clear using ADM-5 emulation. This also
relates to how good your term program is.
JOIN, HELP, and anything else you can think of.
10) If it's a dialin, call the numbers around it and see if a company
answers. If they do, try some social engineering.

Brute Force Hacking
There will also be many occasions when the default passwords will not work on an account. At this point, you can either go onto the next system on your list, or you can try to 'brute-force' your way in by trying a large database of passwords on that one account. Be careful, though! This works fine on systems that don't keep track of invalid logins, but on a system like a VMS, someone is going to have a heart attack if they come back and see '600 Bad Login Attempts Since Last Session' on their account. There are also some operating systems that disconnect after 'x' number of invalid login attempts and refuse to allow any more attempts for one hour, or ten minutes, or some- times until the next day.

The following list is taken from my own password database plus the data- base of passwords that was used in the Internet UNIX Worm that was running around in November of 1988. For a shorter group, try first names, computer terms, and obvious things like 'secret', 'password', 'open', and the name of the account. Also try the name of the company that owns the computer system (if known), the company initials, and things relating to the products the company makes or deals with.

Password List

aaa daniel jester rascal
academia danny johnny really
ada dave joseph rebecca
adrian deb joshua remote
aerobics debbie judith rick
airplane deborah juggle reagan
albany december julia robot
albatross desperate kathleen robotics
albert develop kermit rolex
alex diet kernel ronald
alexander digital knight rosebud
algebra discovery lambda rosemary
alias disney larry roses
alpha dog lazarus ruben
alphabet drought lee rules
ama duncan leroy ruth
amy easy lewis sal
analog eatme light saxon
anchor edges lisa scheme
andy edwin louis scott
andrea egghead lynne scotty
animal eileen mac secret
answer einstein macintosh sensor
anything elephant mack serenity
arrow elizabeth maggot sex
arthur ellen magic shark
asshole emerald malcolm sharon
athena engine mark shit
atmosphere engineer markus shiva
bacchus enterprise marty shuttle
badass enzyme marvin simon
bailey euclid master simple
banana evelyn maurice singer
bandit extension merlin single
banks fairway mets smile
bass felicia michael smiles
batman fender michelle smooch
beauty fermat mike smother
beaver finite minimum snatch
beethoven flower minsky snoopy
beloved foolproof mogul soap
benz football moose socrates
beowulf format mozart spit
berkeley forsythe nancy spring
berlin fourier napoleon subway
beta fred network success
beverly friend newton summer
bob frighten next super
brenda fun olivia support
brian gabriel oracle surfer
bridget garfield orca suzanne
broadway gauss orwell tangerine
bumbling george osiris tape
cardinal gertrude outlaw target
carmen gibson oxford taylor
carolina ginger pacific telephone
caroline gnu painless temptation
castle golf pam tiger
cat golfer paper toggle
celtics gorgeous password tomato
change graham pat toyota
charles gryphon patricia trivial
charming guest penguin unhappy
charon guitar pete unicorn
chester hacker peter unknown
cigar harmony philip urchin
classic harold phoenix utility
coffee harvey pierre vicky
coke heinlein pizza virginia
collins hello plover warren
comrade help polynomial water
computer herbert praise weenie
condo honey prelude whatnot
condom horse prince whitney
cookie imperial protect will
cooper include pumpkin william
create ingres puppet willie
creation innocuous rabbit winston
creator irishman rachmaninoff wizard
cretin isis rainbow wombat
daemon japan raindrop yosemite
dancer jessica random zap

I hope this file has been of some help in getting started. If you're asking yourself the question 'Why hack?', then you've probably wasted a lot of time reading this, as you'll never understand. For those of you who have read this and found it useful, please send a tax-deductible donation of $5.00 (or more!) in the name of the Legion of Doom to:

The American Cancer Society
90 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016



1) Introduction to ItaPAC by Blade Runner
Telecom Security Bulletin 1

2) The IBM VM/CMS Operating System by Lex Luthor
The LOD/H Technical Journal 2

3) Hacking the IRIS Operating System by The Leftist
The LOD/H Technical Journal 3

4) Hacking CDC's Cyber by Phrozen Ghost
Phrack Inc. Newsletter 18

5) USENET comp.risks digest (various authors, various issues)

6) USENET unix.wizards forum (various authors)

7) USENET info-vax forum (various authors)

Recommended Reading:

1) Hackers by Steven Levy
2) Out of the Inner Circle by Bill Landreth
3) Turing's Man by J. David Bolter
4) Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder
5) Neuromancer, Count Zero, Mona Lisa Overdrive, and Burning Chrome, all by  William Gibson
6) Reality Hackers Magazine c/o High Frontiers, P.O. Box 40271, Berkeley,California, 94704, 415-995-2606
7) Any of the Phrack Inc. Newsletters & LOD/H Technical Journals you can find.

Thanks to my wife for putting up with me.
Thanks to Lone Wolf for the RSTS & TOPS assistance.
Thanks to Android Pope for proofreading, suggestions, and beer.
Thanks to The Urvile/Necron 99 for proofreading & Cyber info.
Thanks to Eric Bloodaxe for wading through all the trash.
Thanks to the users of Phoenix Project for their contributions.
Thanks to Altos Computer Systems, Munich, for the chat system.
Thanks to the various security personel who were willing to talk to me  about how they operate.

Copyright 1988 by Loyd Blankenship ( All rights reserved.