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Navajo Code Talkers

List of Names of Code Talkers
When Navajos Fought Japanese for Ne-He-Mah
Navajo verb is "like a tiny imagist poem." na'il-dil means "You are accustomed to eat plural separable objects one at a time." This linguistic and phonetic complexity makes the language not only difficult for non-Navajos to understand but almost impossible to counterfeit. also see

Navajo Codetalkers Dictionary

Navajo Code Talkers lobby for Native language bill
Tuesday, November 14, 2006
Three Navajo Code Talker are in Washington, D.C., to push for passage of the Esther Martinez Native American Language Act.
Keith Little, Merril Sandoval and Samuel Tso used the Navajo language to create an unbreakable code during World War II. They are visiting the White House and Congress to lobby for the importance of preserving all Native languages.
"The Navajo Code Talkers have been called into action one more time; they\ are taking to Capitol Hill this week in an unprecedented effort to save one of America's greatest legacies -- its Native languages," said Ryan Wilson, the president of the National Alliance to Save Native Languages and president of the National Indian Education Association.
H.R.4766 would authorize the Department of Heath and Human Services to award grants for language immersion programs. It passed the House before Congress went on recess but was held up in the Senate.
The bill is named after Esther Martinez, a Tewa language instructor who was killed in an auto accident shortly after receiving a National Heritage Fellowship.

Navajo Temperment Differences

(1) Bruce Lepper: Do you think that the Navajo, who have innate patience, do not have this choice, whereas you do, because you are from a culture where paying a lot of attention to time is what you describe as a culturally arbitrary value? And does it not seem likely, in view of the existence of this innate temperament among the Navajo, that we are all carrying innate temperaments, some of them intact, some of them vestigial, depending on the historical stability of our biological groups?

(2) Jay R. Feierman: That's a very thought provoking question, which I've thought about for the past 35 years. The Navajo seem to have innate calmness, as it can be demonstrated on the first day of life, based on the work of Dan Freedman, who measured activity levels in the newborn nursery of Navajo compared to non-Navajo babies. Also, the few Navajos I know who have been adopted at birth by Anglos also have this same calm disposition to them. I also delivered about 300 Navajo babies and when Navajo women are in labor, for the most part they remain relatively calm and don't make the loud type of sounds which I was used to hearing from Anglo women in labor. So in terms of calmness, I don't believe its a choice for them, its just the way they are. However, I suspect that the innate calm disposition of the Navajo and their inattentiveness to time are two separate issues, with the former being innate and the latter being culturally acquired.
In terms of time there is very little that a traditional Navajo sheep herder living on the reservation needs to do at one hour which couldn't wait a few hours or even a few days. When I was living with them in the early 1970s, most of the traditional Navajo didn't wear wrist watches. If they'd tell you they were coming to see you on one day, they may come sometime that week. They also were not into numbers. They didn't know off the top of their head numerical things which Anglos knew, such as how old they were and even how many children they had, if they had a lot of children (average was 6.7 children/family). When one would ask a traditional Navajo woman how many children she had (through a translator), she would say each name out loud and hold up a different finger for each name and then give the total number. When traditional Navajo go off the reservation to the University, the time demands are often very difficult for them. Yet, some of them do adapt and go on to get advanced degrees and work in the time conscious business world. About 15 years ago, when pagers and cell phones were just becoming part of the required equipment of a technocrat, my Navajo friends from the reservation, who would stay with us in our house when they came to Albuquerque to shop, would laugh every time my pager or cell phone rang. They didn't even have a landline phone and probably checked their mail every few weeks in the post office.
So what I learned from them was that my adherence to exact time schedules was culturally arbitrary, although necessary to get the kinds of things done I was doing in the industrialized world. When I said that I learned about patience from them, what I really learned was the arbitrary nature of my time adherence. Their innate calmness made it easy for them to sit and wait without appearing impatient, but that was also because they also didn't have a lot of other things on their schedule to do that day.
There have been times in my life where I have had to wait long periods of time, such as having to wait in an airport for a flight which has been delayed 24 hours. When I've had to do that, I have wished that waiting was as easy for me as it is for the Navajo. Also, I learned to culturally adapt to their quiet and patient ways when I was living with them. We had a 4 wheel drive Jeep, as there were only about four paved roads on the reservation, which was bigger than the state of Connecticut. When we'd be out in the middle of nowhere and picked up a Navajo walking, the Navajo would get in the Jeep and say nothing. After a half hour or hour, the Navajo would make a motion with his or her hand that this is where they wanted to get off. They just wouldn't talk, even if they could speak English. At best, they would answer questions with monosyllable answers but one got the impression that it was a strain on them to make small talk. The mother of a Navajo woman friend, who married an Anglo man, used to say about this man that he didn't talk much "for an Anglo."
In response to your last question, we probably all do carry "innate temperaments, some of them intact, some of them vestigial, depending on the historical stability of our biological groups?" However, in an amalgamated society, such as the United States, it is much more difficult to make generalizations about groups as it is with the Navajo, who although now number in the hundreds of thousands, may all be the descendants of one small hunter-gather band of a few dozen individuals, which migrated from central Alaska to the American southwest a only a few hundred years ago. I hope I answered your question in this rambling reply.~ Regards, Jay R. Feierman

Pair study American Indian languages to preserve them Oregon: The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla say only 44 elders among its 2,525 tribal members still fluently speak their three native languages: Cayuse, Nez Perce and Walla Walla.  To help preserve those languages, the tribe has received $585,000 in grants to create language classes on reservation schools and master-apprentice teams for elders to pass on the language to others. At the end of three years, apprentices may become licensed as language teachers.  "It's been the best year of my life, the most enlightened," said apprentice Linda Sampson.  "It's opened my eyes."  Sampson hopes the program will spark renewed interest in learning tribal languages, something she believes is crucial.  "Every tribe has the same  goal -- keeping their language going," she said.  "You can preserve it, but  you've got to transfer it to your kids."  113070774232722

First Nation People And the Law

Concept: Why aren't First Nation people citizens of the state in which they reside, and the answer is, they do not live in the state.
Reservation land is considered outside of the state even if it is enclosed by it.
Yes, they still do use public education, state roads, etc., and hence the taxation and sovereignty issues are very much disputed.

First Nation People living on reservation land and not in a state at large.

If an Indian moves onto state land, he or she is subject to the laws of the state and local ordinances.
For instance, reservation territory does not have to calibrate gasoline dispension, allow the State Health Department to inspect facilities, or follow state environmental laws. That, again, is on reservation land. The local assertion of the NYS Oneidas has been that any land they buy here should be removed from state tax rolls, and not subject to any state or local regulation. This was struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of the City of Sherrill v.s. the Oneida Indian Nation a couple of years ago, though in most cases, the taxes are not yet paid.
The Supreme Court ruled that on land purchased off the reservation, taxes are due and they are subject to state and local laws unless the land is put into trust with the Office of I.B.A.

There are enormous issues of state v.s. Indian government sovereignty here. Yes, it is problematic. The land claim issue here revolves around land that was purchased by the State of NY long ago, but the purchase was not ratified by the U.S. Congress.
Only Congress pass laws regarding First Nation People.
Another example would be if I committed a crime on reservation landor if a crime was committed against me there, it would fall only to the First Nation Justice System which controls whatever happens on the reservation. No state or local laws would apply there. I could not take someone to court in the State of New York for committing a crime against me on the reservation. This is my understanding after signing a contract with their legal department.
Instead of having I.D. as citizens of the State of New York, they have clan cards.
The Oneidas used to use them off reservation to avoid sales tax in stores, but I believe that may have been struck down. Ex-governor Cuomo negotiated a pact with the Oneidas for a Casino, but that appears illegal because he was a representive of the State and not Federal Government. It is expected to be challenged in court.
States cannot negotiate pacts with foreign entities. Another example is the issue of school tax. Most Oneidas here attend public school off the reservation. They do not pay school tax. Instead they offer what is called the "Silver Covenant Grant." However, this money can, and has been withheld. In Stockbridge, the Nation was not pleased with a Native American teacher that the school felt was doing her job. The grant was withheld, and the school district was forced to fend for money in other ways, and cut back on programs in order to avoid firing the teacher. In other instances they have imposed that certain essays be assigned the students that show the Oneida in a certain light, threatening to withhold the grant money if the district did not comply.

First Nation People have been in North America for probably 16,000 years.

Black Indian Mexico
Facts, along with analysis, pics, reading list, links, and page reference "proofs" of African origins of heroes in Mexican History.

Black Indian Slave Narratives
It is significant to know that the Freedmen of Indian Territory were a unique people with a unique lifestyle and culture. Most of the Freedmen were bilingual, although many did speak little or no English and only the language of their Indian slavemasters. The Oklahoma Slave Narratives contain many references to their culture and lifestyle, illustrating how immersed they were in the Native way of life.


Cherokee Freedmen win tribal citizenship lawsuit Read Ruling: Oklahoma: The Cherokee Tribe's highest court has ruled that the Cherokee Freedman, descendants of African-American slaves who lived among the tribe, may claim full Cherokee citizenship.    The Judicial Appeals Tribunal said the Freedmen can retain citizenship and tribal privileges despite not having identifiable "Indian" blood.  "If the Cherokee people wish to limit tribal citizenship, and such limitation would terminate the pre-existing citizenship of even one Cherokee citizen, then it must be done in the open," the court wrote.  The court said the only way to legally terminate the Freedmen's citizenship is through the Cherokee constitution.  The current constitution, enforced in 1975, does not limit tribal citizenship by blood.  The Freedmen dispute began in the 1980s when Lucy Allen, 73, a Freedmen descendant, was barred from voting in tribal elections.

Cherokee Tribe:
Eastern Tribe:
And this is the ONLY other Federally recognized Cherokee tribe, The United Keetowah Band This is a SMALL intense group.
Military and Other Standards
and U.S. Gov

The National Register of Historic Places is pleased to promote awareness of and appreciation for the history and culture of American Indians and Alaska Natives during National American Indian Heritage Month. This month is dedicated to recognizing the intertribal cultures, the events and lifeways, the designs and achievements of American Indians and Alaska Natives. As part of the observance, this site showcases historic properties listed in the National Register, National Register publications, and National Park units. Join the National Register in paying powerful tribute to the spirit of American Indians and Alaska Natives, and their contributions to our history.

Tribes on the Plains, Mississippi and the Ohio River Valley.
Find out about Haida totem poles, village life in Hidatsa and Mandan tribes on the plains, sacred ceremonial sites for the Yoeme (Yaqui) people, daily life of the Pueblo Indians, mounds of Mississippi and the Ohio River Valley, and more. 

The American Virgin Islands

Tainos, Carib Indians who lived in the U.S.Caribbean Islands


The first settlers of Hawai'i.


American Indians in Children's Literature! Debbie Reese
I am tribally enrolled at Nambe Pueblo in northern New Mexico. I'm from the Upper Village (Yates family). A former school teacher, I currently teach in UIUC's American Indian Studies program.


For children, baby to pre-kindergarten
Douglas Wood, Lisa Desimini (illus.), Northwoods Cradle Song: From a Menominee Lullaby

For children, K-4 grade
Joseph Bruchac, Thomas Locker (illus.), Between Earth & Sky: Legends of Native American Sacred Places
Maria Williams, Felix Vigil (illus.), How Raven Stole the Sun (Tales of the People)
Joseph Bruchac, Thomas Locker (illus.), Thirteen Moons on Turtle's Back

For children, 3-8 grade

Sally M. Hunter, Joe Allen (illus.), Four Seasons of Corn
Gordon Regguinti, Dale Kakkak (illus.), The Sacred Harvest
Sandra King, Catherine Whipple (photographer), Shannon
Susan Braine (Photographer), Drumbeat . . . Heartbeat: A Celebration of the Powwow (We Are Still Here: Native Americans Today)
Joseph Bruchac, Code Talker: A Novel About the Navajo Marines of World War II
Robert Lipsyte, Jim Thorpe: 20th Century Jock (Superstar Lineup)
Maria Campbell, Douglas Tait (illus.), Shannon Twofeathers (illus.), People of the Buffalo: How the Plains Indians Lived
Edward F. Rivinus, Bob Masheris (illus.), Jim Thorpe: Sauk and Fox Native American Indian Stories (Raintree-Rivilo American Indian Stories)

For young adults
Gloria Whelan, Leslie Bowman (illus), Night Of The Full Moon
Irwin, Hadley. We are Mesquakie, We Are One

For adults
Tara Browner, Heartbeat of the People: Music and Dance of the Northern Pow-wow
Julia C. White, The Pow Wow Trail: Understanding and Enjoying the Native American Pow Wow
William Thomas Hagan, The Sac and Fox Indians (Civilization of the American Indian Series)
R. David Edmunds, Joseph L. Peyser, The Fox Wars
Hawk, Donald Dean Jackson, Donald Jackson (Editor), Black Hawk
Black Hawk, Milo Milton Quaife (Editor), Life of Black Hawk Black Hawk, Life of MA-KA-TAI-ME-SHE-KIA-KIAK or Black Hawk (American Biography Series)
Crawford B. Thayer, Hunting a Shadow: The Search for Black Hawk
Nels Bruseth, Indian Stories and Legends Of the Stillacuamish, Sauks and Allied Tribes
William Jones, Ethnography of the Fox Indians (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins Series)
Fred McTaggart, Wolf That I Am
Ray A. Young Bear, Meskwaki author of
Black Eagle Child: The Facepaint Narratives
The Invisible Musician
The Rock Island Hiking Club
Winter of the Salamander
Nancy Lobb, 16 Extraordinary Native Americans
Barry Moreno, We Came to American: The Native Americans
Douglas Spotted Eagle, Voices of Native America
Bryan Burton, Moving Within the Circle: Contemporary Native American Music and Dance
Don Contreras and Diane Morris Bernstein, We Dance Because We Can: People of the Powwow
John Bierhorst, A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians
Rick Hill, Skywalkers

The Monument of Chief Rolling Mountain Thunder
Sherman Alexie, "Smoke Signals"
"Lakota Woman: Siege at Wounded Knee,", the story of the American Indian Movement, based on Mary Crow Dog's autobiography.
"Windtalkers," Navajo code-talkers of World War II, actors are native, the linguistics of it are sound.
"Spirit of Crazy Horse,"  Documentary about AIM and the struggle for Native American rights
Robert Redford, "Incident at Oglala: The Leonard Peltier Story"
"Dances with Wolves"
"Soldier Blue," (Violent, NOT for children) Recreation of the Sand Creek Massacre

Smithsonian Folkways
Keith Secola "Circle" (CD)
Robbie Robertson "Music for Native Americans - O.S.T." (CD)
Buffy Saint Marie, "Up Where We Belong" (CD)
Buffy Saint Marie, "The Best of Buffy Saint Marie, vol. 2" (CD)
Black Lodge Singers, "Tribute to the Elders" (CD)
Black Lodge Singers, "Kids Pow-Wow Songs" (CD)
"Pow Wow Songs: Music of the Plains Indians" (CD)
"Gathering of Nations Pow-Wow 1999" (2001 GRAMMY WINNER) (CD)
Tsonakwa, "Echoes of the Night" (Abenaki storyteller) (CD)

Web Sites
Sac and Fox Culture, History, and Links
The University of Iowa - Museum of Natural History
Native American Books and Literature
Peacemaker Heroes - Chief Arvol Looking Horse
Iowa Roots: Everett Kapayou
Community: Chief Wilma Mankiller

RESOURCES: Where did the First Nation American Indians come from?

November is National American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month. Music, Dance, Language, Tlingits, Cree, Navajo, Cherokee,
Literacy, Black First Nation People, Virgin Island, Hawaii Resources - CHINA
LANGUAGE Carvings link Chinese with American Indians Asians may have crossed Bering Strait BEIJING Carvings identical to ancient Chinese characters have been found in American Indian sites dating back thousands of years, the China Daily reported. They so closely resemble the 3,000-year-old Shang Dynasty characters for the sun, sky, rain, water, crops, trees and astronomy that if they had not been found in America, Chinese experts would have classified them automatically as pre-221 B.C. Chinese script, the newspaper said. American Indian and Chinese pictographs in 56 matching sets were shown to senior academics at a symposium in Anyang, former capital of the Shang Dynasty.
Zheng He’s Inheritance- Chinese Charts of the Americas from Ming back to Xia
Speech for Library of Congress 5/16/05

The Harris maps were printed from wood block. Most are on mulberry-bark paper and are written in classical Chinese. Although varying in ages they have only minimal differences. The oldest of the Harris maps are believed to be from the Ming dynasty. The map books themselves are Korean but the world map in each book is a Chinese map. The Korean name for that type map is Ch’onhado meaning “Chinese map.

Case for Other Pre-Columbian Voyagers

Dr. Davis advanced the hypothesis that the Zuni Indians of New Mexico were distinctive in language, culture and biology, compared with other Indians, partly because they may have come in contact with Japanese in the 13th century. She noted similarities between the Zuni and the Japanese in blood chemistry and some basic words. Even the Zuni migration stories, she said, were suggestive in their description of the trek of a distinctive people from the "ocean of the sunset world" in search of the true middle of the world.
"I'm not saying the Zuni are Japanese," Dr. Davis said, "but they may include influences from Japan at a particular time."
From the audience arose Joseph Dishta, head councilman of the Zuni tribe in New Mexico.
"We do not endorse this theory," Mr. Dishta said. "We have our own interpretation. We always feel we've been in that part of the country since time immemorial. We feel we emerged from the mother earth."
If the Japanese found their way to the Zuni, could Jewish refugees from the Roman Empire have made it to the eastern mountains of Tennessee in the second century? At least that is the meaning a few researchers read in an inscribed stone found a century ago with nine skeletons in a burial mound at Bat Creek in Tennessee.
For years, the inscription was interpreted as a message in Cherokee. When Dr. Cyrus H. Gordon, retired professor of Mediterranean studies at Brandeis University, had a look, he decided the engraving was actually in Hebrew and similar to writings found on Hebrew coins of the first and second centuries. Carbon dating shows the burial took place between the years 32 and 769.
At the conference, Dr. J. Huston McCulloch, an economist at Ohio State University who has become a leading exponent of the Jewish connection to Bat Creek, defended the stone's antiquity and the Jewish interpretation against recent attacks by professional anthropologists. He discounted the possibility of a hoax.

Why does Zunian have no known affiliation to any other language in North America? How did the blood allele B get to this pueblo­and not others? Why is the religious system so highly integrated and complex? The Zuni culture is one of the ten most-documented cultures of the world, yet these and numerous other questions persist.14 Indeed, the complexities of the social, religious, and political system have "occupied scholars and defied interpretation by them since the 1890s,"
The twenty contemporary Pueblo groups of the American Southwest stand out as distinctive clusters of communities derived from at least seven different language groups, sharing many characteristics, but continuing individual local traditions in pottery, jewelry, and ceremonies. Unlike the nomadic Navaho and Apache who arrived in the area much later—perhaps as late as the sixteenth century—and who live in households quite separated from each other, Pueblo peoples live in consolidated villages and have long been agriculturalists. In Chapter 9, I speculate on the possibility that the Pueblo groups as a whole share a common link to the Anasazi civilization, which may have incorporated influences from Asia at an earlier time than the one considered here for the Zuni.

see: Prehistoric American Indians Zuni Prehistory
The archeological record in the Zuni area indicates that a flurry of new pueblos was built between 1250 and 1300, but the Pueblo of Zuni in its exact present location may be quite new—perhaps as recent as A.D. 1692, after the Pueblo rebellion against Spanish and Catholic intrusion.

"Why do the Zunis and the Japanese share a rare kidney disease?
Their language, religion, and blood type are startlingly different from all other tribes. Most puzzling, the Zuni appear to have much in common with the people of Japan.
In a book with ground breaking implications, Dr. Nancy Yaw Davis examines the evidence underscoring the Zuni enigma and suggests the circumstances that may have led Japanese on a religious quest -- searching for the legendary "middle world" of Buddhism -- across the Pacific to the American Southwest more than seven hundred years ago.
TOTEM POLES China Sources: Kim, Taegon. "A Study on the Rite of Changsung, Korea's Totem Pole." Korea Journal. p.4-19 March 1983.
communication with Timothy Tangherlini,specialist in Korean Folkloristics at the University of California, Los Angeles

American Indian Totem poles are an ancient tradition of the Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest Coast--Washington state in the USA, British Columbia in Canada--and some of the Athabaskan tribes of southern Alaska.
Pictures of Totem Poles

Various Dong People Pictures/

We went to the Hong Feng Lake. The drum tower by the lakeshore can be reached by boat,
the folksongs similar to the ones we heard.
The Dong ethnic group at Chinese New Year Eve's CCTV Gala in 1994.

Dong Ethnic Song - Song of Cicadas

Dominating the landscape of a Dong village is the drum tower with its superb formation of multi-storied pagoda-like roofs,constructed to the unique architecture of the Dong Ethnic.The lower pavilion of each tower is where villagers congregate during festivals and special meetings. People often gather there in the evenings, to listen to traditional folk songs. After harvests, young people hold festive dances on the grounds surrounding the drum tower.
The drum tower is the highest and most revered structure in the village. A giant drum within the tower served in the past as a warning device against invasions. In ancient times, villagers assembled at the tower with their weapons to await orders from the head of their clan. Drum towers are a specialty and symbol of the Dong nationality. They first appeared in villages along the Yellow River during the Northern Dynasties (386-581 A.D). the oldest standing drum towers date from the Shunzhi period (1644-1661 A.D) of the Qing Dynasty. A typical large village consists of from 500 to 600 families, and a small one, of about 50 families. As a rule, one village is said to contain families of one or two surnames. Each drum tower signifies one surname; some villages have two or three drum towers, therefore indicating that two or three surnames dominate the village. The outline of a Dong drum tower resembles a fir tree, a sacred tree in Dong culture. Some anthropologists have suggested that the Dong people used to be tree dwellers, since they are believed to be a branch of the ancient Yue people, a tree dwelling tribe.

TRUE OR FALSE? Many American Indians are the ones who work on bridiges in the US - are not afraid of the height.

china people are american indian first nation people

U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs

U.S. Indian Tribes - Index by StateGet contact information for tribes.

How to Find Native Websites

Land and Treaty Rights A link site providing information on Native American rights

Native American Megasites This has every link a teacher will probably need.

Native American Resource Guide

Native American Website for Children

Native Web Huge data base on most tribes










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