Spanish Based Creole Languages like Papiamento
American Virgin Islands Creole, American Indian words in Louisiana, DIALECT SPEAKERS,African American Vernacular, AAVE, Dialect, Creole, Patois, Pidgin, ESL
Sandra Madeira's "Towards an annotated bibliography of restructured Portuguese in
is now posted on the ACBLPE website. Go to http://www.acblpe.org/ (you don't need to register)
"Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie near Venezuela in the Caribbean Ocean. Arawak Indians
there when the Spanish arrived in 1527. The Dutch took possession in 1634, forcing the Spaniards and
most Indians to leave. They took some Indians as slaves on Curaçao, and sent others to Bonaire and
Aruba. This change in power did not necessarily lead to a change in language spoken, however, because
the Dutch often preferred to use Spanish or Portuguese or Creole Portuguese with conquered peoples,
Dutch amongst themselves (Holm 2000).
Dutch and Jews learned the emerging creole for contact. ~ Holm (2000)
estimates that the creole stabilized on Curaçao around 1700, then spread to Bonaire and Aruba. PP
are attested in Jewish ship names in 1706, and Dutch documents in the 17th and 18th centuries. By the
time the creole was fully established in the late 18th century, Dutch missionaries preached in
Curaçao and Bonaire now belong to the group of islands called the Netherlands Antilles. Aruba was part of the N.A. until 1986, when it became independent of this group. (It remains under the jurisdiction of the Netherlands.) Today, about 80% of island residents speak PP as a first language. Dutch remains the language of government and education.
Spanish is culturally important. Portuguese was used during the early slave trade, but fell out of use by 1800. English has only recently (1915 on Curaçao, 1928 on Aruba) entered the picture on the islands with the introduction of the petroleum industry, and is economically important in oil and tourism. Today, residents speak PP, Dutch, Spanish, and English."